An Overview of Citation Styles

 

APA Style

APA Style, which is a citation format established by the American Psychological Association, is currently in its 7th edition.  The format was developed to ensure consistency and to provide style rules for those writing scientific documents.  For more information, see this APA style overview.

 

The APA Style format is mainly used for:

  • Social Sciences (e.g., Psychology, Sociology, Economics, Education, Anthropology)
  • Business
  • Engineering
  • Communications

 

What does APA Style cover?

  • the format and structure of papers
  • how other authors are cited within the body of a paper
  • how the list of references at the end of a paper is formatted

 

MLA Style

The 9th edition of the MLA Handbook is the most recent publication of the style guide.  The Modern Language Association developed the MLA format.  For more information visit the Using MLA Format page.

 

MLA Style is generally used in the Humanities disciplines, including (but not limited to):

  • English Studies (Language & Literature)
  • Foreign Languages and Literatures
  • Comparative Literature
  • Cultural Studies
  • Other areas in the humanities

 

What does MLA Style include?

  • the format and structure of papers
  • how other authors are cited within the body of a paper
  • how the list of references at the end of a paper is formatted
  • a standard way to format abbreviations, footnotes, quotations, etc.

 

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chicago and Turabian Style are similar, with the numbering system for notes being one of the bigger differences.  The Chicago Style is currently in its 17th edition, while Turabian is in its 9th edition.  Turabian is a condensed version of Chicago Style that is often used by students. For more information on Chicago Style, view the Chicago Style Quick Guide. For more information on Turabian Style, visit the Turabian Style Quick Guide.

 

Chicago and Turabian are often used in Business, History, and the Fine Arts, and sometimes in the Humanities, Sciences, and Social Sciences.

 

What does Chicago Style include?

  • the format and page layout of papers
  • a standard way to format abbreviations, footnotes, quotations
  • how to cite authors within the body of papers
  • how to compile a references page at the end of your paper